在mysql中执行sql文件的命令,复制代码 代码如下

作者: www.9159.com  发布:2019-09-23

For mysql, the first nonoption argument is taken as the name of the default database. If there is no such option, mysql does not select a default database.

       You can also set the following variables by using --var_name=value
       options:

复制代码 代码如下:

 

mysql -h localhost -u myname -ppassword mydb

       shell> mysqldump --all-databases --master-data=2 > all_databases.sql
       or
       shell> mysqldump --all-databases --flush-logs --master-data=2 > all_databases.sql

       ·  --port=port_num, -P port_num

影响MySQL导入文件大小的参数有三个:

对于MySQL,第一个非选项参数被当作默认数据库的名称。如果没有这样的选项,MySQL就不会选择默认数据库。

       mysqldump is also very useful for populating databases by copying data
       from one MySQL server to another:

       ·  --flush-logs, -F

 

mysql --host=localhost --user=myname --password=password mydb

          Verbose mode. Print out more information on what the program does.

       ·  --opt

 

第一个是全拼,第二个是第一个的缩写

mysqldump工具有大量的选项,部分选项如下表:

       ·  --complete-insert, -c

 

也就是说在命令行中,你的mysql密码和-p或者--password参数之间有空格,mysql会认为你输入的是登录mysql后自动选择的数据库,而不是你所期望的密码

       ·  net_buffer_length

mysqldump -u用户名 -p密码 -h主机 数据库 a -w “sql条件” –lock-all-tables > 路径

 

这是我从mysql官方文档拷过来的内容

          This option causes the binary log position and filename to be
          written to the output. This option requires the RELOAD privilege and
          the binary log must be enabled. If the option value is equal to 1,
          the position and filename are written to the dump output in the form
          of a CHANGE MASTER statement that makes a slave server start from
          the correct position in the master's binary logs if you use this SQL
          dump of the master to set up a slave. If the option value is equal
          to 2, the CHANGE MASTER statement is written as an SQL comment. This
          is the default action if value is omitted.  value may be given as of
          MySQL 4.1.8; before that, do not specify an option value.

  这个选项使得mysqldump命令给每一个产生INSERT语句加上列(field)的名字。当把数据导出导另外一个数据库时这个选项很有用。

 

当然命令行连接数据库还有其它参数,这里主要介绍几个经常使用的,其它请参考

mysqldump -u用户名 -p密码 -h主机 数据库 < 路径

          This option is useful for dumping large tables. It forces mysqldump
          to retrieve rows for a table from the server a row at a time rather
          than retrieving the entire row set and buffering it in memory before
          writing it out.

c:>MySQLdump -h localhost -u root -p mydb >e:MySQLmydb.sql 

还有一点就是各个参数之间是否有空格的问题,-u后面可以有也可以省略空格,对于-p后面的参数我要单独说一下

       ·  --fields-terminated-by=..., --fields-enclosed-by=...,
          --fields-optionally-enclosed-by=..., --fields-escaped-by=...,
          --lines-terminated-by=...

       ·  --version, -V

2.退出MySQL 可以输入命令exit;或者quit;

  If you use a -p or --password option and specify the password value, there must be no space between -p or --password= and the password following it.

          Use charset as the default character set. See Section 7.1, “The
          Character Set Used for Data and Sorting”. If not specified,
          mysqldump from MySQL 4.1.2 or later uses utf8, and earlier versions
          use latin1.

       It is also possible to set variables by using
       --set-variable=var_name=value or -O var_name=value syntax. However,
       this syntax is deprecated as of MySQL 4.0.

在mysql中执行sql文件的命令 : source  d:myprogramdatabasedb.sql;

一般在使用中,我们会省略-h参数,mysql会自动默认为本地连接

       ·  --create-options

mysqldump -u用户名 -p密码 -h主机 数据库 < 路径

修改密码:

具体就是:对于password选项,此选项是可选的

       ·  --version, -V

       The most common use of mysqldump is probably for making a backup of an
       entire database:

-h localhost可以省略,其一般在虚拟主机上用

如果你使用了-p或者--password选项但是没有给出password值,客户端程序提示您输入密码。

          Use complete INSERT statements that include column names.

          The connection protocol to use. Added in MySQL 4.1.

从数据库导出数据库文件:

 

       It is also possible to set variables by using
       --set-variable=var_name=value or -O var_name=value syntax. However,
       this syntax is deprecated as of MySQL 4.0.

          Dump only records php/select">selected by the given WHERE condition. Note that
          quotes around the condition are mandatory if it contains spaces or
          characters that are special to your command interpreter.

1.在php.ini中修改相关参数:

for password options, the password value is optional:

          For each table, surround the INSERT statements with /*!40000 ALTER
          TABLE tbl_name DISABLE KEYS */; and /*!40000 ALTER TABLE tbl_name
          ENABLE KEYS */; statements. This makes loading the dump file into a
          MySQL 4.0 or newer server faster because the indexes are created
          after all rows are inserted. This option is effective for MyISAM
          tables only.

          Do not write CREATE TABLE statements that re-create each dumped
          table.

2.将数据库mydb中的mytable导出到e:MySQLmytable.sql文件中:

这是客户端连接mysql服务器的指令,比较全的写法是下面两种

  --add-drop-table

mysqldump导出表:

 

使用此命令首先确保你的mysql运行环境已经搭建好

  --full 这个选项把附加信息也加到CREATE TABLE的语句中

       ·  --host=host_name, -h host_name

在mysql中执行sql文件的命令 : source d:myprogramdatabasedb.sql; 连接MYSQL: mysql -h主机地址 -u用户名 -...

如果你明确指定了-p或者--password的值,那么-p或者--password和密码值之间是不能有空格的。

          Produce tab-separated data files. For each dumped table, mysqldump
          creates a tbl_name.sql file that contains the CREATE TABLE statement
          that creates the table, and a tbl_name.txt file that contains its
          data. The option value is the directory in which to write the files.

          See the description for the --comments option.

 

  If you use a -p or --password option but do not specify the password value, the client program prompts you to enter the password. The password is not displayed as you enter it. This is more secure than giving the password on the command line. Other users on your system may be able to see a password specified on the command line by executing a command such as ps auxw

复制代码 代码如下:

          Produce tab-separated data files. For each dumped table, mysqldump
          creates a tbl_name.sql file that contains the CREATE TABLE statement
          that creates the table, and a tbl_name.txt file that contains its
          data. The option value is the directory in which to write the files.

 

复制代码 代码如下:

       If you run mysqldump without the --quick or --opt option, mysqldump
       loads the whole result set into memory before dumping the result. This
       probably is a problem if you are dumping a big database. As of MySQL
       4.1, --opt is enabled by default, but can be disabled with --skip-opt.

四.从外部文件MySQL导入数据到数据库中:

          On a master replication server, delete the binary logs after
          performing the dump operation. This option automatically enables
          --first-slave before MySQL 4.1.8 and enables --master-data
          thereafter. It was added in MySQL 3.23.57 (for MySQL 3.23) and MySQL
          4.0.13 (for MySQL 4.0).

复制代码 代码如下:

3.将数据库mydb的结构导出到e:MySQLmydb_stru.sql文件中:

          Dump binary string columns using hexadecimal notation (for example,
          ´abc' becomes 0x616263). The affected columns are BINARY, VARBINARY,
          and BLOB in MySQL 4.1 and up, and CHAR BINARY, VARCHAR BINARY, and
          BLOB in MySQL 4.0. This option was added in MySQL 4.0.23 and 4.1.8.

       ·  --help, -?

修改upload_ ......

       ·  --disable-keys, -K

          Use complete INSERT statements that include column names.

 

       mysql> CREATE TABLE t (f DOUBLE);
       mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(1e+111111111111111111111);
       mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(-1e111111111111111111111);
       mysql> SELECT f FROM t;
       +------+
       | f    |
       +------+
       |  inf |
       | -inf |
       +------+

  --full 这个选项把附加信息也加到CREATE TABLE的语句中

打开开始->运行->输入cmd 进入命令行模式

          Override the --databases or -B option. All arguments following the
          option are regarded as table names.

          Override the --databases or -B option. All arguments following the
          option are regarded as table names.

连接MYSQL: 

AUTHOR
       MySQL AB ().  This software comes with no
       warranty.

          Dump binary string columns using hexadecimal notation (for example,
          ´abc' becomes 0x616263). The affected columns are BINARY, VARBINARY,
          and BLOB in MySQL 4.1 and up, and CHAR BINARY, VARCHAR BINARY, and
          BLOB in MySQL 4.0. This option was added in MySQL 4.0.23 and 4.1.8.

memory_limit=128M,upload_max_filesize=2M,post_max_size=8M 

       The significance of this behavior is that if you dump and restore the
       table, the new table has contents that differ from the original
       contents. This problem is fixed as of MySQL 4.1.2; you cannot insert
       inf in the table, so this mysqldump behavior is only relevant when you
       deal with old servers.

       For this table, mysqldump produces the following data output:

五.下面谈一下关于导入文件大小限制问题的解决:

          These options are used with the -T option and have the same meaning
          as the corresponding clauses for LOAD DATA INFILE. See Section 2.5,
          “LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax”.

  -F or -flush-logs 使用这个选项,在执行导出之前将会刷新MySQL服务器的log.

 

       ·  --host=host_name, -h host_name

在您只需要DDL语句时,可以使用这个选项。

然后输入密码,等待一会导出就成功了,可以到目标文件中检查是否成功。

          This option is shorthand; it is the same as specifying
          --add-drop-table --add-locks --create-options --disable-keys
          --extended-insert --lock-tables --quick --set-charset. It should
          give you a fast dump operation and produce a dump file that can be
          reloaded into a MySQL server quickly.  As of MySQL 4.1, --opt is on
          by default, but can be disabled with --skip-opt. To disable only
          certain of the options enabled by --opt, use their --skip forms; for
          example, --skip-add-drop-table or --skip-quick.

          Lock all tables before starting the dump. The tables are locked with
          READ LOCAL to allow concurrent inserts in the case of MyISAM tables.
          For transactional tables such as InnoDB and BDB,
          --single-transaction is a much better option, because it does not
          need to lock the tables at all.

3.在CMD中输入下列命令:

          Use multiple-row INSERT syntax that include several VALUES lists.
          This results in a smaller dump file and speeds up inserts when the
          file is reloaded.

比较大的表需要用优化的dump以节省内存:
mysqldump --opt database > backup-file.sql

 

复制代码 代码如下:

  这个选项使的mysqldump命令不创建CREATE TABLE语句,这个选项在您只需要数据而不需要DDL(数据库定义语句)时很方便。
  
  -d or -no-data 这个选项使的mysqldump命令不创建INSERT语句。

 

          Insert rows using INSERT DELAYED statements.

DESCRIPTION
       The mysqldump client can be used to dump a database or a collection of
       databases for backup or for transferring the data to another SQL server
       (not necessarily a MySQL server). The dump contains SQL statements to
       create the table and/or populate the table.

 

       ·  --single-transaction

       There are three general ways to invoke mysqldump:

c:>MySQLdump -h localhost -u root -p mydb mytable>e:MySQLmytable.sql 

          Add a DROP TABLE statement before each CREATE TABLE statement.

       ·  net_buffer_length

mysql -h主机地址 -u用户名 -p用户密码

          Flush the MySQL server log files before starting the dump. This
          option requires the RELOAD privilege. Note that if you use this
          option in combination with the --all-databases (or -A) option, the
          logs are flushed for each database dumped. The exception is when
          using --lock-all-tables or --master-data: In this case, the logs are
          flushed only once, corresponding to the moment that all tables are
          locked. If you want your dump and the log flush to happen at exactly
          the same moment, you should use --flush-logs together with either
          --lock-all-tables or --master-data.

          Verbose mode. Print out more information on what the program does.

 

          This option does not guarantee compatibility with other servers. It
          only enables those SQL mode values that are currently available for
          making dump output more compatible. For example, --compatible=oracle
          does not map data types to Oracle types or use Oracle comment
          syntax.

          Add SET NAMES default_character_set to the output. This option is
          enabled by default. To suppress the SET NAMES statement, use
          --skip-set-charset. This option was added in MySQL 4.1.2.

mysql导入导出表结构及表数据及执行sql文件

          Compress all information sent between the client and the server if
          both support compression.

       ·  --xml, -X

默认情况下:MySQL导入文件大小有限制的,最大为2M,所以当文件很大时候,直接无法导入,下面就这个问题的解决列举如下:

mysqldump导出表:

       ·  --skip-comments

 

       ·  --xml, -X

  --opt 此选项将打开所有会提高文件导出速度和创造一个可以更快导入的文件的选项。

从e:MySQLmydb2.sql中将文件中的SQL语句导入数据库中:

       Before MySQL 4.1.2, out-of-range numeric values such as -inf and inf,
       as well as NaN (not-a-number) values are dumped by mysqldump as NULL.
       You can see this using the following sample table:

复制代码 代码如下:

c:>MySQL -h localhost -u root -p mydb2 < e:MySQLmydb2.sql 

       For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which
       may already be installed locally and which is also available online at
       .

          Please note that when dumping multiple databases, --lock-tables
          locks tables for each database separately. So, this option does not
          guarantee that the tables in the dump file are logically consistent
          between databases. Tables in different databases may be dumped in
          completely different states.

然后输入密码,就OK了。

复制代码 代码如下:

       Before MySQL 4.1.2, out-of-range numeric values such as -inf and inf,
       as well as NaN (not-a-number) values are dumped by mysqldump as NULL.
       You can see this using the following sample table:

c:>MySQLdump -h localhost -u root -p mydb --add-drop-table >e:MySQLmydb_stru.sql 

       ·  --compatible=name

          Lock all tables across all databases. This is achieved by acquiring
          a global read lock for the duration of the whole dump. This option
          automatically turns off --single-transaction and --lock-tables.
          Added in MySQL 4.1.8.

 

          "--where=user='jimf'"
          "-wuserid>1"
          "-wuserid<1"

       ·  --tab=path, -T path

1.将数据库mydb导出到e:MySQLmydb.sql文件中:

          Do not write any row information for the table. This is very useful
          if you want to get a dump of only the structure for a table.

       shell> mysqldump --all-databases > all_databases.sql

 

       ·  --add-drop-table

mysqldump工具有大量的选项,部分选项如下表:

 mysqladmin -u用户名 -p旧密码 password 新密码

       mysqldump supports the following options:

       If tables are stored in the InnoDB storage engine, mysqldump provides a
       way of making an online backup of these (see command below). This
       backup just needs to acquire a global read lock on all tables (using
       FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK) at the beginning of the dump. As soon as
       this lock has been acquired, the binary log coordinates are read and
       lock is released. So if and only if one long updating statement is
       running when the FLUSH...  is issued, the MySQL server may get stalled
       until that long statement finishes, and then the dump becomes
       lock-free. So if the MySQL server receives only short (in the sense of
       "short execution time") updating statements, even if there are plenty
       of them, the initial lock period should not be noticeable.

1.从命令行进入MySQL,然后用命令CREATE DATABASE mydb2;创建数据库mydb2。

       ·  --where=�����where-condition�����, -w �����where-condition�����

       The simultaneous use of --master-data and --single-transaction works as
       of MySQL 4.1.8. It provides a convenient way to make an online backup
       suitable for point-in-time recovery if tables are stored in the InnoDB
       storage engine.

       If you do not name any tables or use the --databases or --all-databases
       option, entire databases are dumped.

       ·  --user=user_name, -u user_name

       ·  --result-file=file, -r file

          The MySQL username to use when connecting to the server.

          Lock all tables across all databases. This is achieved by acquiring
          a global read lock for the duration of the whole dump. This option
          automatically turns off --single-transaction and --lock-tables.
          Added in MySQL 4.1.8.

使用mysqldump
mysqldump -u root -p your-new-password databasename [tablename] > db.sql

       To get a list of the options your version of mysqldump supports,
       execute mysqldump --help.

          These options are used with the -T option and have the same meaning
          as the corresponding clauses for LOAD DATA INFILE. See Section 2.5,
          “LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax”.

       shell> mysqldump --opt db_name > backup-file.sql

          Flush the MySQL server log files before starting the dump. This
          option requires the RELOAD privilege. Note that if you use this
          option in combination with the --all-databases (or -A) option, the
          logs are flushed for each database dumped. The exception is when
          using --lock-all-tables or --master-data: In this case, the logs are
          flushed only once, corresponding to the moment that all tables are
          locked. If you want your dump and the log flush to happen at exactly
          the same moment, you should use --flush-logs together with either
          --lock-all-tables or --master-data.

          Please note that when dumping multiple databases, --lock-tables
          locks tables for each database separately. So, this option does not
          guarantee that the tables in the dump file are logically consistent
          between databases. Tables in different databases may be dumped in
          completely different states.

mysqldump -u用户名 -p密码 -h主机 数据库 < 路径

  -f or -force 使用这个选项,即使有错误发生,仍然继续导出

       You can read the dump file back into the server like this:

       shell> mysqldump [options] db_name [tables]
       shell> mysqldump [options] --databases DB1 [DB2 DB3...]
       shell> mysqldump [options] --all-databases

       shell> mysqldump [options] db_name [tables]
       shell> mysqldump [options] --databases DB1 [DB2 DB3...]
       shell> mysqldump [options] --all-databases

       ·  --lock-tables, -l

复制代码 代码如下:

          Allow creation of column names that are keywords. This works by
          prefixing each column name with the table name.

       shell> mysqldump --opt db_name | mysql --host=remote_host -C db_name

          Dump data from the MySQL server on the given host. The default host
          is localhost.

       ·  --set-charset

       ·  --add-drop-database

SYNOPSIS
       mysqldump [options] [db_name [tbl_name ...]]

       If you want to dump all databases, use the --all-databases option:

mysqldump按条件导入:

          Deprecated, renamed to --lock-all-tables in MySQL 4.1.8.

       ·  --socket=path, -S path

  --delayed-insert 在INSERT命令中加入DELAY选项

          By default, the .txt data files are formatted using tab characters
          between column values and a newline at the end of each line. The
          format can be specified explicitly using the --fields-xxx and
          --lines--xxx options.

          This option requires a server version of 4.1.0 or higher. With older
          servers, it does nothing.

       You can also set the following variables by using --var_name=value
       options:

       ·  --compact

       ·  --databases, -B

          Add SET NAMES default_character_set to the output. This option is
          enabled by default. To suppress the SET NAMES statement, use
          --skip-set-charset. This option was added in MySQL 4.1.2.

       To get a list of the options your version of mysqldump supports,
       execute mysqldump --help.

       Or like this:

       shell> mysql -e "source /path-to-backup/backup-file.sql" db_name

          The --master-data option turns on --lock-all-tables, unless
          --single-transaction also is specified (in which case, a global read
          lock is only acquired a short time at the beginning of the dump. See
          also the description for --single-transaction. In all cases, any
          action on logs happens at the exact moment of the dump. This option
          automatically turns off --lock-tables.

          Include all MySQL-specific table options in the CREATE TABLE
          statements. Before MySQL 4.1.2, use --all instead.

       ·  --socket=path, -S path

       ·  --hex-blob

mysqldump -u用户名 -p密码 -h主机 数据库 表

SEE ALSO
       isamchk(1), isamlog(1), msql2mysql(1), myisamchk(1), myisamlog(1),
       myisampack(1), mysql(1), mysql.server(1), mysql_config(1),
       mysql_fix_privilege_tables(1), mysql_zap(1), mysqlaccess(1),
       mysqladmin(1), mysqlbinlog(1), mysqlcheck(1), mysqld(1),
       mysqld_multi(1), mysqld_safe(1), mysqlhotcopy(1), mysqlimport(1),
       mysqlshow(1), pack_isam(1), perror(1), replace(1), safe_mysqld(1)

          The socket file to use when connecting to localhost (which is the
          default host).

          When using this option, you should keep in mind that only InnoDB
          tables are dumped in a consistent state. For example, any MyISAM or
          HEAP tables dumped while using this option may still change state.

mysqldump -u用户名 -p密码 -h主机 数据库 < 路径

       ·  --no-data, -d

使用mysqldump
mysqldump -u root -p your-new-password databasename [tablename] > db.sql

       ·  --allow-keywords

       shell> mysql -e "source /path-to-backup/backup-file.sql" db_name

          Write dump output as well-formed XML.

          Produce less verbose output. This option suppresses comments and
          enables the --skip-add-drop-table, --no-set-names,
          --skip-disable-keys, and --skip-add-locks options. Added in MySQL
          4.1.2.

       --
       -- Dumping data for table ‘t‘
       --
       INSERT INTO t VALUES (NULL);
       INSERT INTO t VALUES (NULL);

       shell> mysql db_name < backup-file.sql

          Write a debugging log. The debug_options string is often
          ´d:t:o,file_name'.

          Examples:

       ·  --no-create-info, -t

          To dump big tables, you should combine this option with --quick.

mysqldump按条件导出:

       ·  --all-databases, -A

          Insert rows using INSERT DELAYED statements.

       ·  --delayed-insert

  -q or -quick 这个选项使得MySQL不会把整个导出的内容读入内存再执行导出,而是在读到的时候就写入导文件中。

          If set to 0, suppresses additional information in the dump file such
          as program version, server version, and host.  --skip-comments has
          the same effect as --comments=0. The default value is 1, which
          includes the extra information. Added in MySQL 4.0.17.

       shell> mysqldump --opt db_name > backup-file.sql

       For more information on making backups, see Section 6.1, “Database
       Backups”.

  选项/Option 作用/Action Performed

  -l or -lock-tables 使用这个选项,导出表的时候服务器将会给表加锁。

       If you want to dump all databases, use the --all-databases option:

       shell> mysqldump --all-databases --single-transaction > all_databases.sql

       mysqldump supports the following options:

参数详解:

       ·  --lock-all-tables, -x

       shell> mysqldump --databases db_name1 [db_name2 ...] > my_databases.sql

案例:

NAME
       mysqldump - a database backup program

       ·  --no-create-db, -n

       ·  --master-data[=value]

  -l or -lock-tables 使用这个选项,导出表的时候服务器将会给表加锁。

       ·  --help, -?

       ·  --force, -f

       It is possible to dump several databases with one command:

参考国外网站

          Display version information and exit.

  -t or -no-create- info

       If you run mysqldump without the --quick or --opt option, mysqldump
       loads the whole result set into memory before dumping the result. This
       probably is a problem if you are dumping a big database. As of MySQL
       4.1, --opt is enabled by default, but can be disabled with --skip-opt.

       ·  --comments[={0|1}]

       ·  --default-character-set=charset

       ·  --quick, -q

       ·  --user=user_name, -u user_name

       For more information on making backups, see Section 6.1, “Database
       Backups”.

mysqldump按条件导出:

          Allow creation of column names that are keywords. This works by
          prefixing each column name with the table name.

          The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

  -T path or -tab = path 这个选项将会创建两个文件,一个文件包含DDL语句或者表创建语句,另一个文件包含数据。DDL文件被命名为table_name.sql,数据文件被命名为table_name.txt.路径名是存放这两个文件的目录。目录必须已经存在,并且命令的使用者有对文件的特权。
  
  -w "WHERE Clause" or -where = "Where clause "

          Add a DROP DATABASE statement before each CREATE DATABASE statement.
          Added in MySQL 4.1.13.

          Surround each table dump with LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES
          statements. This results in faster inserts when the dump file is
          reloaded. See Section 2.13, “Speed of INSERT Statements”.

          The connection protocol to use. Added in MySQL 4.1.

       shell> mysqldump --all-databases --single-transaction > all_databases.sql

       ·  --comments[={0|1}]

          The --master-data option turns on --lock-all-tables, unless
          --single-transaction also is specified (in which case, a global read
          lock is only acquired a short time at the beginning of the dump. See
          also the description for --single-transaction. In all cases, any
          action on logs happens at the exact moment of the dump. This option
          automatically turns off --lock-tables.

mysql -uroot -p1234 db1 < c:a.txt

  --add-locks

  这个选项使得mysqldump命令给每一个产生INSERT语句加上列(field)的名字。当把数据导出导另外一个数据库时这个选项很有用。

          This option causes the binary log position and filename to be
          written to the output. This option requires the RELOAD privilege and
          the binary log must be enabled. If the option value is equal to 1,
          the position and filename are written to the dump output in the form
          of a CHANGE MASTER statement that makes a slave server start from
          the correct position in the master's binary logs if you use this SQL
          dump of the master to set up a slave. If the option value is equal
          to 2, the CHANGE MASTER statement is written as an SQL comment. This
          is the default action if value is omitted.  value may be given as of
          MySQL 4.1.8; before that, do not specify an option value.

  -T path or -tab = path 这个选项将会创建两个文件,一个文件包含DDL语句或者表创建语句,另一个文件包含数据。DDL文件被命名为table_name.sql,数据文件被命名为table_name.txt.路径名是存放这两个文件的目录。目录必须已经存在,并且命令的使用者有对文件的特权。
  
  -w "WHERE Clause" or -where = "Where clause "

       For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which
       may already be installed locally and which is also available online at
       .

       shell> mysqldump --all-databases > all_databases.sql

       ·  --extended-insert, -e

       ·  --no-create-info, -t

       ·  --compatible=name

       --
       -- Dumping data for table ‘t‘
       --
       INSERT INTO t VALUES (NULL);
       INSERT INTO t VALUES (NULL);

案例:mysqldump -uroot -p sqlhk9 a –no-data

          The maximum size of the buffer for client/server communication. The
          value of the variable can be up to 16MB before MySQL 4.0, and up to
          1GB from MySQL 4.0 on.

       Or like this:

          By default, the .txt data files are formatted using tab characters
          between column values and a newline at the end of each line. The
          format can be specified explicitly using the --fields-xxx and
          --lines--xxx options.

       ·  --verbose, -v

          The initial size of the buffer for client/server communication. When
          creating multiple-row-insert statements (as with option
          --extended-insert or --opt), mysqldump creates rows up to
          net_www.9159.com,buffer_length length. If you increase this variable, you should
          also ensure that the net_buffer_length variable in the MySQL server
          is at least this large.

       ·  --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

          See the description for the --comments option.

          The maximum size of the buffer for client/server communication. The
          value of the variable can be up to 16MB before MySQL 4.0, and up to
          1GB from MySQL 4.0 on.

案例:mysqldump -uroot -p sqlhk9 a –no-data

NAME
       mysqldump - a database backup program

          Do not write CREATE TABLE statements that re-create each dumped
          table.

       ·  --tables

mysqldump还原:

          If set to 0, suppresses additional information in the dump file such
          as program version, server version, and host.  --skip-comments has
          the same effect as --comments=0. The default value is 1, which
          includes the extra information. Added in MySQL 4.0.17.

       ·  --complete-insert, -c

       It is possible to dump several databases with one command:

mysqldump按条件导入:

       ·  --disable-keys, -K

       ·  max_allowed_packet

       ·  --compact

       ·  --allow-keywords

       mysql> CREATE TABLE t (f DOUBLE);
       mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(1e+111111111111111111111);
       mysql> INSERT INTO t VALUES(-1e111111111111111111111);
       mysql> SELECT f FROM t;
       +------+
       | f    |
       +------+
       |  inf |
       | -inf |
       +------+

       ·  --no-data, -d

          Quote database, table, and column names within ‘‘' characters. If
          the server SQL mode includes the ANSI_QUOTES option, names are
          quoted within ‘"' characters. As of MySQL 4.1.1, --quote-names is on
          by default. It can be disabled with --skip-quote-names, but this
          option should be given after any option such as --compatible that
          may enable --quote-names.

       ·  --databases, -B

          The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

mysqldump -u用户名 -p密码 -h主机 数据库 a -w “sql条件” –lock-all-tables > 路径

          This option suppresses the CREATE DATABASE /*!32312 IF NOT EXISTS*/
          db_name statements that are otherwise included in the output if the
          --databases or --all-databases option is given.

  这个选项使的mysqldump命令不创建CREATE TABLE语句,这个选项在您只需要数据而不需要DDL(数据库定义语句)时很方便。
  
  -d or -no-data 这个选项使的mysqldump命令不创建INSERT语句。

          Note: This option should be used only when mysqldump is run on the
          same machine as the mysqld server. You must have the FILE privilege,
          and the server must have permission to write files in the directory
          that you specify.

复制代码 代码如下:

       ·  --password[=password], -p[password]

       ·  --extended-insert, -e

       ·  --add-locks

       For this table, mysqldump produces the following data output:

       ·  --add-drop-database

       ·  --first-slave, -x

          "--where=user='jimf'"
          "-wuserid>1"
          "-wuserid<1"

  选项/Option 作用/Action Performed

参数详解:

          The MySQL username to use when connecting to the server.

          To dump big tables, you should combine this option with --quick.

  --opt 此选项将打开所有会提高文件导出速度和创造一个可以更快导入的文件的选项。

          Continue even if an SQL error occurs during a table dump.

          This option is useful for dumping large tables. It forces mysqldump
          to retrieve rows for a table from the server a row at a time rather
          than retrieving the entire row set and buffering it in memory before
          writing it out.

          Dump data from the MySQL server on the given host. The default host
          is localhost.

       ·  --lock-all-tables, -x

       shell> mysqldump --all-databases --master-data=2 > all_databases.sql
       or
       shell> mysqldump --all-databases --flush-logs --master-data=2 > all_databases.sql

  这个选项会在INSERT语句中捆上一个LOCK TABLE和UNLOCK TABLE语句。这就防止在这些记录被再次导入数据库时其他用户对表进行的操作
  
  -c or - complete_insert

  --add-drop-table

  --add-locks

  这个选项会在INSERT语句中捆上一个LOCK TABLE和UNLOCK TABLE语句。这就防止在这些记录被再次导入数据库时其他用户对表进行的操作
  
  -c or - complete_insert

       The simultaneous use of --master-data and --single-transaction works as
       of MySQL 4.1.8. It provides a convenient way to make an online backup
       suitable for point-in-time recovery if tables are stored in the InnoDB
       storage engine.

          Compress all information sent between the client and the server if
          both support compression.

          Dump only records php/select">selected by the given WHERE condition. Note that
          quotes around the condition are mandatory if it contains spaces or
          characters that are special to your command interpreter.

       ·  --lock-tables, -l

       ·  --quick, -q

mysqldump备份:

       ·  --port=port_num, -P port_num

       If you are using a recent copy of the mysqldump program to generate a
       dump to be reloaded into a very old MySQL server, you should not use
       the --opt or -e options.

SEE ALSO
       isamchk(1), isamlog(1), msql2mysql(1), myisamchk(1), myisamlog(1),
       myisampack(1), mysql(1), mysql.server(1), mysql_config(1),
       mysql_fix_privilege_tables(1), mysql_zap(1), mysqlaccess(1),
       mysqladmin(1), mysqlbinlog(1), mysqlcheck(1), mysqld(1),
       mysqld_multi(1), mysqld_safe(1), mysqlhotcopy(1), mysqlimport(1),
       mysqlshow(1), pack_isam(1), perror(1), replace(1), safe_mysqld(1)

mysqldump -u用户名 -p密码 -h主机 数据库 表

       ·  --protocol={TCP | SOCKET | PIPE | MEMORY}

          The socket file to use when connecting to localhost (which is the
          default host).

          The --single-transaction option was added in MySQL 4.0.2. This
          option is mutually exclusive with the --lock-tables option, because
          LOCK TABLES causes any pending transactions to be committed
          implicitly.

          Examples:

复制代码 代码如下:

          Direct output to a given file. This option should be used on
          Windows, because it prevents newline ‘n' characters from being
          converted to ‘rn' carriage return/newline sequences.

DESCRIPTION
       The mysqldump client can be used to dump a database or a collection of
       databases for backup or for transferring the data to another SQL server
       (not necessarily a MySQL server). The dump contains SQL statements to
       create the table and/or populate the table.

       ·  --protocol={TCP | SOCKET | PIPE | MEMORY}

       ·  --add-locks

          Produce less verbose output. This option suppresses comments and
          enables the --skip-add-drop-table, --no-set-names,
          --skip-disable-keys, and --skip-add-locks options. Added in MySQL
          4.1.2.

       ·  --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

          This option is shorthand; it is the same as specifying
          --add-drop-table --add-locks --create-options --disable-keys
          --extended-insert --lock-tables --quick --set-charset. It should
          give you a fast dump operation and produce a dump file that can be
          reloaded into a MySQL server quickly.  As of MySQL 4.1, --opt is on
          by default, but can be disabled with --skip-opt. To disable only
          certain of the options enabled by --opt, use their --skip forms; for
          example, --skip-add-drop-table or --skip-quick.

       ·  --tables

       ·  --where=�����where-condition�����, -w �����where-condition�����

          Display a help message and exit.

  -f or -force 使用这个选项,即使有错误发生,仍然继续导出

       ·  --hex-blob

          The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the
          short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option
          and the password. If you omit the password value following the
          --password or -p option on the command line, you are prompted for
          one.

          Produce output that is more compatible with other database systems
          or with older MySQL servers. The value of name can be ansi,
          mysql323, mysql40, postgresql, oracle, mssql, db2, maxdb,
          no_key_options, no_table_options, or no_field_options. To use
          several values, separate them by commas. These values have the same
          meaning as the corresponding options for setting the server SQL
          mode. See the section called “THE SERVER SQL MODE”.

          The --single-transaction option was added in MySQL 4.0.2. This
          option is mutually exclusive with the --lock-tables option, because
          LOCK TABLES causes any pending transactions to be committed
          implicitly.

复制代码 代码如下: mysqldump -u用户名 -p密码 -h主机 数据库 a -w “sql条件” –lock-all-tables 路径 mysqldump还原: 复制代码 代码如...

复制代码 代码如下:

          This option issues a BEGIN SQL statement before dumping data from
          the server. It is useful only with transactional tables such as
          InnoDB and BDB, because then it dumps the consistent state of the
          database at the time when BEGIN was issued without blocking any
          applications.

       ·  --add-drop-table

       ·  --verbose, -v

       If you do not name any tables or use the --databases or --all-databases
       option, entire databases are dumped.

          Direct output to a given file. This option should be used on
          Windows, because it prevents newline ‘n' characters from being
          converted to ‘rn' carriage return/newline sequences.

          Add a DROP DATABASE statement before each CREATE DATABASE statement.
          Added in MySQL 4.1.13.

          Continue even if an SQL error occurs during a table dump.

       shell> mysql db_name < backup-file.sql

  -F or -flush-logs 使用这个选项,在执行导出之前将会刷新MySQL服务器的log.

          For each table, surround the INSERT statements with /*!40000 ALTER
          TABLE tbl_name DISABLE KEYS */; and /*!40000 ALTER TABLE tbl_name
          ENABLE KEYS */; statements. This makes loading the dump file into a
          MySQL 4.0 or newer server faster because the indexes are created
          after all rows are inserted. This option is effective for MyISAM
          tables only.

       There are three general ways to invoke mysqldump:

          This option requires a server version of 4.1.0 or higher. With older
          servers, it does nothing.

  这个选项将会在每一个表的前面加上DROP TABLE IF EXISTS语句,这样可以保证导回MySQL数据库的时候不会出错,因为每次导回的时候,都会首先检查表是否存在,存在就删除

       The significance of this behavior is that if you dump and restore the
       table, the new table has contents that differ from the original
       contents. This problem is fixed as of MySQL 4.1.2; you cannot insert
       inf in the table, so this mysqldump behavior is only relevant when you
       deal with old servers.

       ·  --password[=password], -p[password]

       mysqldump is also very useful for populating databases by copying data
       from one MySQL server to another:

          Include all MySQL-specific table options in the CREATE TABLE
          statements. Before MySQL 4.1.2, use --all instead.

          Dump all tables in all databases. This is the same as using the
          --databases option and naming all the databases on the command line.

       ·  --delete-master-logs

          Deprecated, renamed to --lock-all-tables in MySQL 4.1.8.

          Note: This option should be used only when mysqldump is run on the
          same machine as the mysqld server. You must have the FILE privilege,
          and the server must have permission to write files in the directory
          that you specify.

          The initial size of the buffer for client/server communication. When
          creating multiple-row-insert statements (as with option
          --extended-insert or --opt), mysqldump creates rows up to
          net_buffer_length length. If you increase this variable, you should
          also ensure that the net_buffer_length variable in the MySQL server
          is at least this large.

       ·  --opt

       ·  --fields-terminated-by=..., --fields-enclosed-by=...,
          --fields-optionally-enclosed-by=..., --fields-escaped-by=...,
          --lines-terminated-by=...

       ·  --compress, -C

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       If tables are stored in the InnoDB storage engine, mysqldump provides a
       way of making an online backup of these (see command below). This
       backup just needs to acquire a global read lock on all tables (using
       FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK) at the beginning of the dump. As soon as
       this lock has been acquired, the binary log coordinates are read and
       lock is released. So if and only if one long updating statement is
       running when the FLUSH...  is issued, the MySQL server may get stalled
       until that long statement finishes, and then the dump becomes
       lock-free. So if the MySQL server receives only short (in the sense of
       "short execution time") updating statements, even if there are plenty
       of them, the initial lock period should not be noticeable.

          This option does not guarantee compatibility with other servers. It
          only enables those SQL mode values that are currently available for
          making dump output more compatible. For example, --compatible=oracle
          does not map data types to Oracle types or use Oracle comment
          syntax.

       If you are doing a backup on the server, and your tables all are MyISAM
       tables, you could consider using the mysqlhotcopy instead since faster
       backups and faster restores can be accomplished with the latter. See
       mysqlhotcopy(1).

       shell> mysqldump --databases db_name1 [db_name2 ...] > my_databases.sql

       ·  --flush-logs, -F

          Display a help message and exit.

       ·  --tab=path, -T path

       ·  --all-databases, -A

       If you are using a recent copy of the mysqldump program to generate a
       dump to be reloaded into a very old MySQL server, you should not use
       the --opt or -e options.

       ·  --compress, -C

  -t or -no-create- info

          Do not write any row information for the table. This is very useful
          if you want to get a dump of only the structure for a table.

参考国外网站

       If you are doing a backup on the server, and your tables all are MyISAM
       tables, you could consider using the mysqlhotcopy instead since faster
       backups and faster restores can be accomplished with the latter. See
       mysqlhotcopy(1).

       ·  --skip-comments

          Use charset as the default character set. See Section 7.1, “The
          Character Set Used for Data and Sorting”. If not specified,
          mysqldump from MySQL 4.1.2 or later uses utf8, and earlier versions
          use latin1.

          This option suppresses the CREATE DATABASE /*!32312 IF NOT EXISTS*/
          db_name statements that are otherwise included in the output if the
          --databases or --all-databases option is given.

       ·  --first-slave, -x

mysqldump备份:

       ·  --single-transaction

          Write dump output as well-formed XML.

       ·  --delayed-insert

       ·  --set-charset

mysqldump还原:

       ·  --force, -f

复制代码 代码如下:

       ·  --quote-names, -Q

       ·  --delete-master-logs

  -q or -quick 这个选项使得MySQL不会把整个导出的内容读入内存再执行导出,而是在读到的时候就写入导文件中。

       ·  --create-options

比较大的表需要用优化的dump以节省内存:
mysqldump --opt database > backup-file.sql

  --delayed-insert 在INSERT命令中加入DELAY选项

          Lock all tables before starting the dump. The tables are locked with
          READ LOCAL to allow concurrent inserts in the case of MyISAM tables.
          For transactional tables such as InnoDB and BDB,
          --single-transaction is a much better option, because it does not
          need to lock the tables at all.

          Display version information and exit.

       shell> mysqldump --opt db_name | mysql --host=remote_host -C db_name

          Use multiple-row INSERT syntax that include several VALUES lists.
          This results in a smaller dump file and speeds up inserts when the
          file is reloaded.

案例:

       ·  --result-file=file, -r file

       ·  --no-create-db, -n

          Produce output that is more compatible with other database systems
          or with older MySQL servers. The value of name can be ansi,
          mysql323, mysql40, postgresql, oracle, mssql, db2, maxdb,
          no_key_options, no_table_options, or no_field_options. To use
          several values, separate them by commas. These values have the same
          meaning as the corresponding options for setting the server SQL
          mode. See the section called “THE SERVER SQL MODE”.

          Quote database, table, and column names within ‘‘' characters. If
          the server SQL mode includes the ANSI_QUOTES option, names are
          quoted within ‘"' characters. As of MySQL 4.1.1, --quote-names is on
          by default. It can be disabled with --skip-quote-names, but this
          option should be given after any option such as --compatible that
          may enable --quote-names.

  这个选项将会在每一个表的前面加上DROP TABLE IF EXISTS语句,这样可以保证导回MySQL数据库的时候不会出错,因为每次导回的时候,都会首先检查表是否存在,存在就删除

SYNOPSIS
       mysqldump [options] [db_name [tbl_name ...]]

       ·  --quote-names, -Q

       You can read the dump file back into the server like this:

          On a master replication server, delete the binary logs after
          performing the dump operation. This option automatically enables
          --first-slave before MySQL 4.1.8 and enables --master-data
          thereafter. It was added in MySQL 3.23.57 (for MySQL 3.23) and MySQL
          4.0.13 (for MySQL 4.0).

mysqldump -u用户名 -p密码 -h主机 数据库 a –where “条件语句” –no-建表> 路径
mysqldump -uroot -p1234 dbname a –where “tag='88′” –no-create-info> c:a.sql

          Dump several databases. Normally, mysqldump treats the first name
          argument on the command line as a database name and following names
          as table names. With this option, it treats all name arguments as
          database names.  CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS db_name and USE
          db_name statements are included in the output before each new
          database.

          Dump all tables in all databases. This is the same as using the
          --databases option and naming all the databases on the command line.

AUTHOR
       MySQL AB ().  This software comes with no
       warranty.

          Dump several databases. Normally, mysqldump treats the first name
          argument on the command line as a database name and following names
          as table names. With this option, it treats all name arguments as
          database names.  CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS db_name and USE
          db_name statements are included in the output before each new
          database.

          This option issues a BEGIN SQL statement before dumping data from
          the server. It is useful only with transactional tables such as
          InnoDB and BDB, because then it dumps the consistent state of the
          database at the time when BEGIN was issued without blocking any
          applications.

          When using this option, you should keep in mind that only InnoDB
          tables are dumped in a consistent state. For example, any MyISAM or
          HEAP tables dumped while using this option may still change state.

       ·  --default-character-set=charset

在您只需要DDL语句时,可以使用这个选项。

          Add a DROP TABLE statement before each CREATE TABLE statement.

          Write a debugging log. The debug_options string is often
          ´d:t:o,file_name'.

mysql -uroot -p1234 db1 < c:a.txt

       The most common use of mysqldump is probably for making a backup of an
       entire database:

       For point-in-time recovery (also known as “roll-forward”, when you need
       to restore an old backup and replay the changes which happened since
       that backup), it is often useful to rotate the binary log (see
       Section 8.4, “The Binary Log”) or at least know the binary log
       coordinates to which the dump corresponds:

       For point-in-time recovery (also known as “roll-forward”, when you need
       to restore an old backup and replay the changes which happened since
       that backup), it is often useful to rotate the binary log (see
       Section 8.4, “The Binary Log”) or at least know the binary log
       coordinates to which the dump corresponds:

       ·  max_allowed_packet

          The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the
          short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option
          and the password. If you omit the password value following the
          --password or -p option on the command line, you are prompted for
          one.

mysqldump -u用户名 -p密码 -h主机 数据库 a –where “条件语句” –no-建表> 路径
mysqldump -uroot -p1234 dbname a –where “tag='88′” –no-create-info> c:a.sql

          Surround each table dump with LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES
          statements. This results in faster inserts when the dump file is
          reloaded. See Section 2.13, “Speed of INSERT Statements”.

       ·  --master-data[=value]

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